Multidrug-resistant cancer cells and cancer stem cells hijack cellular systems to circumvent systemic therapies, can natural products reverse this?
Chemotherapy is one of the most effective and broadly used approaches for cancer management and many modern regimes can eliminate the bulk of the cancer cells. However, recurrence and metastasis still remain a major obstacle leading to the failure of systemic cancer treatments. Therefore, to improve the long-term eradication of cancer, the cellular and molecular pathways that provide targets which play crucial roles in drug resistance should be identified and characterised. Multidrug resistance (MDR) and the existence of tumor-initiating cells, also referred to as cancer stem cells (CSCs), are two major contributors to the failure of chemotherapy. MDR describes cancer cells that become resistant to structurally and functionally unrelated anti-cancer agents. CSCs are a small population of cells within cancer cells with the capacity of self-renewal, tumor metastasis, and cell differentiation. CSCs are also believed to be associated with chemoresistance. Thus, MDR and CSCs are the greatest challenges for cancer chemotherapy. A significant effort has been made to identify agents that specifically target MDR cells and CSCs. Consequently, some agents derived from nature have been developed with a view that they may overcome MDR and/or target CSCs. In this review, natural products-targeting MDR cancer cells and CSCs are summarized and clustered by their targets in different signaling pathways.
Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences
Biochemistry and Cell Biology not elsewhere classified