The effects of implant topography on osseointegration under estrogen deficiency induced osteoporotic conditions: Histomorphometric, transcriptional and ultrastructural analysis
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Compromised bone quality and/or healing in osteoporosis are recognised risk factors for impaired dental implant osseointegration. This study examined the effects of (1) experimentally induced osteoporosis on titanium implant osseointegration and (2) the effect of modified implant surface topography on osseointegration under osteoporosis-like conditions. Machined and micro-roughened surface implants were placed into the maxillary first molar root socket of 64 ovariectomised and sham-operated Sprague-Dawley rats. Subsequent histological and SEM observations showed tissue maturation on the micro-rough surfaced implants in ovariectomised animals as early as 3 days post-implantation. The degree of osseointegration was also significantly higher around the micro-rough implants in ovariectomised animals after 14 days of healing although by day 28, similar levels of osseointegration were found for all test groups. The micro-rough implants significantly increased the early (day 3) gene expression of alkaline phosphatase, osteocalcin, receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-B ligand and dentin matrix protein 1 in implant adherent cells. By day 7, the expression of inflammatory genes decreased while the expression of the osteogenic markers increased further although there were few statistically significant differences between the micro-rough and machined surfaces. Osteocyte morphology was also affected by estrogen deficiency with the size of the cells being reduced in trabecular bone. In conclusion, estrogen deficiency induced osteoporotic conditions negatively influenced the early osseointegration of machined implants while micro-rough implants compensated for these deleterious effects by enhancing osteogenic cell differentiation on the implant surface.
© 2016 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. Licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International Licence (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/) which permits unrestricted, non-commercial use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, providing that the work is properly cited.
Biochemistry and Cell Biology not elsewhere classified