Effects of nitrification inhibitor 3,4-dimethylpyrazole phosphate and fungicide iprodione on soil fungal biomass and community: based on internal transcribed spacer region
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Purpose: Nitrification inhibitors that impact soil nitrifying microorganisms have been widely applied in agricultural soils to enhance the efficiency of nitrogen fertilizers. However, little is known about their combined impact with other chemical applications, such as fungicides, on soil fungi. This study specifically examined the effects of the nitrification inhibitor 3,4-dimethylpyrazole phosphate (DMPP), alone or together with the fungicide iprodione, on fungi biomass and community in a typical farmland soil. Materials and methods: Four treatments were set: (1) control of zero agrochemical applications (CK), (2) a single DMPP application (DAA), (3) repeated iprodione applications (4×IPR), and (4) combined applications of DMPP and iprodione (DAA+4×IPR). The agrochemicals were applied at the recommended intervals, and the soil samples were incubated in the dark for 28 days. During the incubation, soil sample DNA was extracted, and the effects of DMPP and iprodione applications on soil fungal internal transcribed spacer (ITS) abundances were determined with quantitative PCR (qPCR). At the end of the incubation, Illumina MiSeq method was employed to assess soil fungal community diversity and structure. Results and discussion: DMPP application had a negligible effect on fungal ITS abundance. However, repeated iprodione applications significantly decreased fungal ITS abundances. After 28 days of incubation, the fungal ITS abundances in the 4×IPR and DAA+4×IPR treatments were 43.6 and 56.2% of that measured from the CK treatment, respectively. Shannon indices of fungal communities demonstrated the treatment-induced gradients, with the DAA+4×IPR treatment harboring the highest Shannon index. Fungal community structures following the DAA and 4×IPR treatments remained overlapping with that in the CK treatment, but repeated iprodione applications markedly enriched the family Teratosphaeriaceae. Relative to the CK treatment, fungal community structure in the DAA+4×IPR treatment was significantly changed, with the families Cephalothecaceae, Hypocreaceae, and Cordycipitaceae harboring a linear discriminant analysis value >3. Conclusions: DMPP application had negligible effects on soil fungal biomass, community diversity, and structure, potentially indicating that the DMPP is “bio-safe.” Conversely, repeated iprodione applications significantly decreased fungal ITS abundances. Moreover, the family Teratosphaeriaceae could be further investigated as a potential biomarker of the impacts of iprodione on soil fungi. The combined applications of DMPP and iprodione stimulated the Shannon diversity index and markedly changed soil fungal community structure.
Journal of Soils and Sediments
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