Prevalence of Hypovitaminosis D Among Jordanian Healthy Infants: A Descriptive Cross Sectional Study
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Purpose: To determine vitamin D deficiency and associated risk factors of hypovitaminosis D among Jordanian healthy infants. Design and Methods: A total of 171 infants receiving a routine health check at a Maternal and Child Health Care Center were recruited. Plasma vitamin D 25-OHD level was assessed using a standard analysis of a blood sample. Other data collected included age, gender, birth order, season of birth, and mode of feeding. Results: Prevalence of vitamin D deficiency (≤15 ng/mL) was 77% (132 out of 171 infants). Infants at risk of vitamin D deficiency were those between 1 to 6 months of age, male, third born or later, born in winter, and exclusively breastfed. The multivariate model showed birth order to be the largest contributor of vitamin D deficiency (R2 = 0.196), followed by breastfed infants (R2 = 0.071), infants born in winter (R2 = 0.037), male gender (R2 = 0.028), and infants aged between 1 and 6 months (R2 = 0.027). Conclusion: Hypovitaminosis D appears to be more common among healthy infants in Jordan. Hypovitaminosis D was found to be common among third or later exclusively breastfeed male infants aged 1 to 6 months who were born during winter. Practice Implication: Maternal and child health nurses have a critical role to play in educating mothers about the importance of preventing hypovitaminosis D through adequate sun exposure and ensuring adequate supplementation. A higher dose of vitamin D supplementation for high-risk infants beyond the age of 1 year from developing countries should be administered.
Journal of Pediatric Nursing