Proteomic changes occurring in the malaria mosquitoes Anopheles gambiae and Anopheles stephensi during aging
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The age of mosquitoes is a crucial determinant of their ability to transmit pathogens and their resistance to insecticides. We investigated changes to the abundance of proteins found in heads and thoraces of the malaria mosquitoes Anopheles gambiae and Anopheles stephensi as they aged. Protein expression changes were assessed using two-dimensional difference gel electrophoresis and the identity of differentially expressed proteins was determined by using either matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization tandem time-of-flight mass spectrometry or capillary high-pressure liquid chromatography coupled with a linear ion-trap (LTQ)-Orbitrap XL hybrid mass spectrometer. Protein biomarkers were validated by semi quantitative Western blot analysis. Nineteen and nine age dependent protein spots were identified for A. stephensi and A. gambiae, respectively. Among the proteins down-regulated with age were homologs of ADF/Cofilin, cytochome c1, heat shock protein-70 and eukaryotic translation initiation factor 5A (eIF5a). Proteins up-regulated with age included probable methylmalonate-semialdehyde dehydrogenase, voltage-dependent anion-selective channel and fructose bisphosphate aldolase. Semi quantitative Western blot analysis confirmed expression patterns observed by 2-D DIGE for eIF5a and ADF/Cofilin. Further work is recommended to determine whether these biomarkers are robust to infection, blood feeding and insecticide resistance. Robust biomarkers could then be incorporated into rapid diagnostic assays for ecological and epidemiological studies. Biological significance In this study, we have identified several proteins with characteristic changes in abundance in both A. gambiae and A. stephensi during their aging process. These changes may highlight underlying mechanisms beneath the relationship between mosquito age and factors affecting Plasmodium transmission and mosquito control. The similarity of changes in protein abundance between these species and the primary dengue vector Aedes aegypti, has revealed conserved patterns of aging-specific protein regulation.
Journal of Proteomics
Copyright 2015 Elsevier. This is the author-manuscript version of this paper. Reproduced in accordance with the copyright policy of the publisher. Please refer to the journal's website for access to the definitive, published version.
Proteomics and Intermolecular Interactions (excl. Medical Proteomics)