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dc.contributor.authorPatterson, I.
dc.contributor.authorPegg, S.
dc.description.abstractIn 1998, a three-part feature in JOPERD explored the concept of lifelong learning for older adults in a variety of nontraditional settings (Swedburg & Ostiguy, 1998; MacNeil, 1998; Arsenault & Anderson, 1998; Linnehan & Naturale, 1998; Hopp, 1998; Bodger, 1998; Gibson, 1998). The underlying theme of these articles was that HPER professionals need to adapt the focus of their programs to meet the demand of an increasing number of adults who want to continue to learn throughout life. This view supported work by several earlier researchers (Cross, 1981; Verduin & McEwen, 1984), who concluded that most adults regard education as an important lifetime activity, and that they learn more effectively in a self-directed and self-planned manner, in contrast to learning in school. In addition to this, the number of adult learners participating in formal learning and educational opportunities through traditional college programs has increased significantly (Bowden & Merritt, 1995; Seaman & Fellenz, 1989). Adult learners (25 years and older) now constitute approximately 40 percent of undergraduate enrollment in U.S. colleges and universities (Kasworm & Pike, 1994).Sessoms (1995), Blazey and James (1994), and Glancy (1993) have also identified a change in the demographics of students enrolling in leisure and recreation programs offered in American universities in recent years. Gitelson (1987) also found a trend toward older students: 17 percent of the students in two-year leisure studies programs, and 12 percent in four-year programs were age 25 or older. While older students share classroom space and educational experiences with 18- to 24-year-old students, their developmental needs, issues, and stressors differ considerably from their younger peers (Benshoff, 1993). A consistent finding in research on older students is that they are a heterogeneous group with more diverse backgrounds than younger students (Graham, 1989). Several researchers (Muench, 1987; Benshoff, 1991) have stated that adult students generally benefit from opportunities to interact with their peers and have a need to be actively involved in the educational process through sharing their relevant work and life experiences. However, they still need guidance and assistance, even though they do much of their planning and learning independently. One approach to assist the self-directed adult learner to be more actively involved in the classroom is through an educational process called andragogy. The purpose of this paper is to discuss a variety of andragogical teaching and learning strategies that may be appropriate for adult learners who are returning to school on a full-time or part-time basis. By way of example, the discussion will focus on adult learners in the leisure studies field.
dc.publisherAmerican Alliance for Health, Physical Education, Recreation and Dance
dc.relation.ispartofjournalJournal of Physical Education, Recreation and Dance
dc.subject.fieldofresearchCurriculum and Pedagogy
dc.subject.fieldofresearchSpecialist Studies in Education
dc.subject.fieldofresearchPerforming Arts and Creative Writing
dc.titleAdult Learning on the Increase: The Need for Leisure Studies Programs to Respond Accordingly
dc.typeJournal article
dc.type.descriptionC1 - Articles
dc.type.codeC - Journal Articles
gro.facultyGriffith Business School, Department of Tourism, Sport and Hotel Management
gro.hasfulltextNo Full Text
gro.griffith.authorPatterson, Ian R.

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