Structural Transitions of a GG-Platinated DNA Duplex Induced by pH, Temperature and Box A of High-Mobility-Group Protein 1
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[1H,15N] and 1H NMR, and CD spectroscopy are used to show that the duplex d(A-T-A-C-A-T-Pt7G-Pt7G-T-A-C-A-T-A) ˙ d(T-A-T-G-T-A-C-C-A-T-G-T-A-T), where Pt7G is platinated guanine, containing the cis-[Pt(NH3)2]2+ adduct undergoes reversible temperature-induced (T0.5 310 K) and pH-induced (pKa≈ 4.8) transitions between kinked-duplex and distorted forms, with the latter forms predominating at high temperature and low pH. A related pH-induced structural change was observed for the unplatinated duplex (pKa 4.69, Hill coefficient n= 1.4) but was less cooperative than for the platinated duplex (n= 2). The pH-induced transition is attributed to protonation of cytosine residues and has wider implications, since many reported NMR studies of DNA are carried out near pH 5 to minimize NH-exchange rates. The [Pt(en)]2+ (where en is 1,2-ethanediamine) GG chelate of the same duplex is shown to exist in kinked and distorted forms, and the [1H,15N]-NMR shifts for the kinked form are indicative of the presence of highly stereospecific interactions with the Pt-NH protons. On binding of the duplex platinated with [Pt(NH3)2]2+ to high-mobility-group protein 1 (HMG1) box A, similar changes in shifts of the Pt-NH3 resonances to those induced by raising the temperature or lowering the pH were observed. The specific changes in 1H-NMR chemical shifts of HMG1 box A are consistent with binding of the platinated duplex (intermediate exchange rate on the 1H-NMR time-scale) to the concave face of the protein via helices I and II and the intervening loop.
European Journal of Biochemistry