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dc.contributor.authorChaisuksant, Y
dc.contributor.authorYu, QM
dc.contributor.authorConnell, DW
dc.date.accessioned2020-02-11T04:54:24Z
dc.date.available2020-02-11T04:54:24Z
dc.date.issued1999
dc.identifier.issn0179-5953en_US
dc.identifier.doi10.1007/978-1-4612-1528-8_1en_US
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/10072/122269
dc.description.abstractToxicity of chemicals to organisms may be classified into two basic types: specific (or reactive or chemical) and nonspecific (or nonreactive or physical). Specific toxicity results from a specific chemical reaction mechanism such as a reaction with an enzyme or the inhibition of a metabolic pathway in an organism. Toxicants causing this type of toxicity include heavy metal ions, organometallic compounds, and other chemically reactive agents. Nonspecific toxicity, often described as narcosis, refers to any reversible decrease in the physiological functions of an organism. This mode of toxic action is directly associated with the quantity, rather than the chemical structure, of the toxicants involved. Nonspecific toxicity has been found to be the predominant mode of toxic action of industrial organic chemicals acting on aquatic organisms, especially fish. A variety of organic compounds act as nonspecific toxicants to aquatic organisms, including aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons, chlorinated hydrocarbons, alcohols, ethers, weak acids and bases, and some aliphatic nitrocompounds. These compounds have also been described as depressants because of their use as hypnotics and general anaesthetics in higher organisms and humans. In small doses they induce sleep and in larger doses a lack of sensation-awareness in the brain to any change in the body.en_US
dc.description.peerreviewedYes
dc.languageEnglish
dc.publisherSpringer-Verlagen_US
dc.publisher.placeUSAen_US
dc.relation.ispartofpagefrom1en_US
dc.relation.ispartofpageto41en_US
dc.relation.ispartofjournalReviews of Environmental Contamination and Toxicologyen_US
dc.relation.ispartofvolume162en_US
dc.titleThe Internal Critical Level Concept of Nonspecific Toxicityen_US
dc.typeJournal articleen_US
dc.type.descriptionC1 - Articlesen_US
dc.type.codeC - Journal Articlesen_US
gro.hasfulltextNo Full Text
gro.griffith.authorConnell, Des W.
gro.griffith.authorYu, Jimmy J.


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