Essentiality of Trace Element Micronutrition in Human Pregnancy: A Systematic Review
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The physiological challenges and metabolic demands of pregnancy increase maternal nutritional requirements for macro and micronutrients, critical for the establishment and maintenance of a healthy pregnancy. Trace elements are essential for a variety of cellular processes, and their deficiency has been linked to complications of pregnancy such as preeclampsia, preterm delivery and small for gestational age babies. Growing evidence suggests that populations of both developing and developed nations may be at risk of sub-optimal micronutrient intakes and that micronutrient supplementation may provide a cost-effective and safe strategy to improve pregnancy outcomes. This review evaluates the importance of essential trace element micronutrition in pregnancy and discusses the benefits of supplementation on maternal outcomes and fetal development. The potential importance of key essential trace elements; magnesium, copper, zinc, calcium, iodine, manganese, selenium and iron are discussed and their importance in pregnancy considered.
Journal of Pregnancy and Child Health
© 2015 Spencer BH, et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
Public Nutrition Intervention