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dc.contributor.authorSanthakumar, Abisheken_US
dc.contributor.authorStanley, Rogeren_US
dc.contributor.authorSingh, Induen_US
dc.date.accessioned2019-01-18T12:31:31Z
dc.date.available2019-01-18T12:31:31Z
dc.date.issued2015en_US
dc.identifier.issn2042-650Xen_US
dc.identifier.doi10.1039/c5fo00715aen_US
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/10072/141004
dc.description.abstractPolyphenol-rich fruit and vegetable intake has been associated with reduction in platelet hyperactivity, a significant contributor to thrombus formation. This study was undertaken to investigate the possible role of hippuric acid, a predominant metabolite of plant cyclic polyols, phenolic acids and polyphenols, in reduction of platelet activation-related thrombogenesis. Fasting blood samples were collected from 13 healthy subjects to analyse the effect of varying concentrations of hippuric acid (100 μM, 200 μM, 500 μM, 1 mM and 2 mM) on activation-dependant platelet surface-marker expression. Procaspase activating compound-1 (PAC-1) and P-selectin/CD62P monoclonal antibodies were used to evaluate platelet activation-related conformational changes and α-granule release respectively using flow cytometry. Platelets were stimulated ex vivo via the P2Y1/P2Y12 – adenosine diphosphate (ADP) pathway of platelet activation. Hippuric acid at a concentration of 1 mM and 2 mM significantly reduced P-selectin/CD62P expression (p = 0.03 and p < 0.001 respectively) induced by ADP. Hippuric acid at 2 mM concentration also inhibited PAC-1 activation-dependant antibody expression (p = 0.03). High ex vivo concentrations of hippuric acid can therefore significantly reduce P-selectin and PAC-1 expression thus reducing platelet activation and clotting potential. However, although up to 11 mM of hippuric acid can be excreted in the urine per day following consumption of fruit, hippuric acid is actively excreted with a recorded Cmax for hippuric acid in human plasma at 250–300 μM. This is lower than the blood concentration of 1–2 mM shown to be bioactive in this research. The contribution of hippuric acid to the protective effects of fruit and vegetable intake against vascular disorders by the pathways measured is therefore low but could be synergistic with lowered doses of antiplatelet drugs and help reduce risk of thrombosis in current antiplatelet drug sensitive populations.en_US
dc.description.peerreviewedYesen_US
dc.languageenglishen_US
dc.publisherRoyal Society of Chemistryen_US
dc.relation.ispartofpagefrom2679en_US
dc.relation.ispartofpageto2683en_US
dc.relation.ispartofissue8en_US
dc.relation.ispartofjournalFood & Functionen_US
dc.relation.ispartofvolume6en_US
dc.subject.fieldofresearchFood Sciences not elsewhere classifieden_US
dc.subject.fieldofresearchcode090899en_US
dc.titleThe ex vivo antiplatelet activation potential of fruit phenolic metabolite hippuric aciden_US
dc.typeJournal articleen_US
dc.type.descriptionC1 - Peer Reviewed (HERDC)en_US
dc.type.codeC - Journal Articlesen_US
dc.description.versionPost-printen_US
gro.facultyGriffith Health, School of Medical Scienceen_US
gro.rights.copyright© 2015 Royal Society of Chemistry. This is the author-manuscript version of this paper. Reproduced in accordance with the copyright policy of the publisher. Please refer to the journal website for access to the definitive, published version.en_US
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