Trait Anxiety But Not State Anxiety During Critical Illness Was Associated With Anxiety and Depression Over 6 Months After ICU
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Objective: To determine the association between anxiety during critical illness and symptoms of anxiety and depression over 6 months after ICU discharge in survivors of intensive care treatment. Design: Longitudinal study. Setting: One closed mixed ICU in an adult tertiary hospital in Brisbane, Australia. Patients: Participants (n = 141) were adults (≥ 8 yr), admitted to ICU for at least 24 hours, able to communicate either verbally or nonverbally, understand English, and open their eyes spontaneously or in response to voice. Interventions: None. Measurements and Main Results: The outcomes of symptoms of anxiety and depression over 6 months after ICU discharge were assessed using the Hospital Anxiety Depression Scale. The primary variable of interest was anxiety during critical illness. Two components of anxiety (state and trait) were assessed during critical illness using the Faces Anxiety Scale and the trait component of the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory. Perceived social support, cognitive functioning, and posttraumatic stress symptoms were also assessed using standardized instruments. Clinical and demographic data were obtained from patients and medical records. Participants were followed up in hospital wards and at 3 and 6 months after ICU discharge. During ICU treatment, 81 of the 141 participants (57%) reported moderate to severe levels of state anxiety. Of the 92 participants who completed the surveys at the 6-month follow-up, 26 participants (28%) reported symptoms of anxiety and 21 (23%) symptoms of depression. Symptoms of anxiety and depression were strongly correlated in this cohort of survivors. Trait anxiety was significantly associated with both anxiety and depression symptoms over time; however, state anxiety was not associated with either outcome. Participants who reported post-ICU memories of intra-ICU anxiety were significantly more anxious during recovery over 6 months. Cognitive functioning and posttraumatic stress symptoms were both significantly associated with anxiety and depression symptoms over time. Conclusion: Symptoms of anxiety and depression are a significant issue for general ICU survivors. Trait anxiety was significantly associated with adverse emotional outcomes over 6 months after ICU discharge. There was also a significant relationship between post-ICU memories of intra-ICU anxiety and anxiety during recovery. Interventions to reduce anxiety during critical illness need to be considered and evaluated for their longer term benefits for survivors of critical illness
Critical Care Medicine
© 2016 LWW. This is a non-final version of an article published in final form in Critical Care Medicine, 44(1):100–110, 2016. Reproduced in accordance with the copyright policy of the publisher. Please refer to the journal link for access to the definitive, published version.
Clinical Sciences not elsewhere classified