Online Learning and Metacognition: A Design Framework
Online learning experiences are becoming the norm for an increasing number of higher education students. Although there are clear advantages to online learning in terms of flexibility and access, many students struggle to succeed, especially in purely online learning environments. To a large extent student success in online learning environments is dependent on students' ability to self-regulate and ‘learn for themselves'- both abilities related to academic metacognition. Unfortunately, even at university, many students do not have well developed metacognition. It is therefore important to consider carefully metacognitive scaffolding in the design of online learning experiences. However, the models of instructional design commonly used in online learning tend not to place great emphasis on the importance of metacognitive scaffolding. The aim of the present chapter is therefore to increase awareness of metacognition, as one of the important considerations in the design of online learning environments that can help to maximize chances of student success. Towards this end, a framework of instructional design that is more sensitive to metacognition is developed.
Handbook of Research on Learning Outcomes and Opportunities in the Digital Age
Vocational Education and Training Curriculum and Pedagogy