Responding to crises in Thailand: A governance analysis
This chapter has a focus on governance decision making during a number of major crises that Thailand has faced over the past decade which have had significant impacts on tourism. This chapter shows, through an exploratory analysis, the way in which a national government reacted and the decisions made with relevance to destination governance during a time of crisis. The chapter also describes a very useful concept for governance, particularly with relevance to tourist destination decision making. The definition refers to governance in terms of dealing with 'the ways in which decision-making power is organized and used' and 'understood to include the processes and institutions responsible for decision making about tourism, notably various levels of government, as well as tourism promotion organizations, development bureaus, private sector enterprises and local community or resident groups'. The authors develop further in this chapter the concept of governance to include both exercises in power as well as workings of democracy and participation in decision making. Of particular interest, this chapter includes the effects of governance decisions relating to tourist destinations during a period of crisis. Two particular crisis situations are explored-major democratic protests in Bangkok, as well as the response and reactions to the Boxing Day 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami. Through this review, the authors indicate the importance of strong proactive, strategic and structured approaches to future potential crises. In addition, the chapter discusses the challenges and potential ineffectiveness of tourism industry responses to major crises and the importance of governance approaches (with the possibility of collaboration with industry) in dealing more effectively with large, potentially negative events.
Tourist destination governance: practice, theory and issues
Tourism not elsewhere classified