Bats as prey of diurnal birds: a global perspective
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1: Predation is an important selective pressure that can influence prey species in numerous ways. Predator–prey relationships are, however, poorly understood in taxa not typically associated with these interactions; this is especially the case when bats (Chiroptera) are the prey. 2: The main aim here is to review and synthesise global information on the predation of bats by birds of prey (Accipitriformes and Falconiformes) and other diurnal bird groups. #: We compiled data on incidences of predation of bats by diurnal birds, through an extensive multilingual study of bibliographic and Internet‐based sources. Scientific papers were found mainly via the Thomson Reuters (Web of Science and Zoological Record) and Scopus databases, Google Scholar, and Google Books. Additional data were found through Internet searches of trip reports, images and videos carried by Google, Google Images, Flickr, and YouTube. 4: In total, more than 1500 cases of bats being attacked by diurnal predatory birds were obtained. Reports were documented from every continent (except Antarctica) and from 109 countries, and were thus distributed globally between 70°N and 43°S. Overall, we found evidence for predation of bats by 143 species of diurnal raptors (Accipitriformes 107 spp. and Falconiformes 36 spp.) and by 94 non‐raptor bird species from 28 families. At least 124 and 50 bat species were taken as prey by raptors and by other diurnal bird species, respectively. 5: Attacks on bats by diurnal raptors were found to be distributed globally and were present in the majority of extant raptor lineages. Attacks on bats by other diurnal birds were also occasionally recorded. Furthermore, the majority of extant bat families featured as prey. These results strongly suggest that predation by birds may act as a major factor affecting the scarcity of daytime activity in bats and as a driver in the evolution of bat nocturnality.
Zoology not elsewhere classified