Adenosine receptor-mediated coronary vascular protection in post-ischemic mouse heart
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This study evaluated the ability of A1 and A3 adenosine receptor (AR) agonism, and A1, A2A, A2B and A3AR antagonism (revealing "intrinsic" responses), to modify post-ischemic coronary dysfunction in mouse heart. Vascular function was assessed before and after 20 min global ischemia and 30-45 min reperfusion in Langendorff perfused C57/Bl6 mouse hearts. Ischemic insult impaired coronary sensitivity to the endothelial-dependent dilators ADP (pEC50=6.8+/-0.1 vs. 7.6+/-0.1, non-ischemic) and acetylcholine (pEC50=6.1+/-0.1 vs. 7.3+/-0.1 in non-ischemic), and for the mixed endothelial-dependent/independent dilator 2-chloroadenosine (pEC50=7.5+/-0.1 vs. 8.4+/-0.1, non-ischemic). Endothelium-independent dilation in response to nitroprusside was unaltered (pEC50=7.0+/-0.1 vs. 7.1+/-0.1 in non-ischemic). Pre-treatment with a selective A1AR agonist (50 nM CHA) failed to modify coronary dysfunction, whereas A1AR antagonism (200 nM DPCPX) worsened the effects of I/R (2-chloroadenosine pEC50=6.9+/-0.1). Conversely, A3AR agonism (100 nM Cl-IB-MECA) did reduce effects of I/R (pEC50s=8.0+/-0.1 and 7.3+/-0.1 for 2-chloroadenosine and ADP, respectively), whereas antagonism (100 nM MRS1220) was without effect. While A2AAR agonism could not be assessed (due to pronounced vasodilatation), A2AAR antagonism (100 nM SCH58261) was found to exert no effect, and antagonism of A2BARs (50 nM MRS1754) was also ineffective. The protective actions of A3AR agonism were also manifest as improved reactive hyperemic responses. Interestingly, post-ischemic coronary dysfunction was also limited by: Na+-H+ exchange (NHE) inhibition with 10 or 50 microM BIIB-513 (2-chloroadenosine pEC50s=7.8+/-0.1, either dose), an effect not additive with A3AR agonism; Ca2+ antagonism with 0.3 microM verapamil (2-chloroadenosine pEC50=7.9+/-0.1); and Ca2+ desensitization with 5 mM BDM (2-chloroadenosine pEC50=7.8+/-0.1). In contrast, endothelin antagonism (200 nM PD142893) and anti-oxidant therapy (300 microM MPG+150 U/ml SOD+600 U/ml catalase) were ineffective. Our data collectively confirm that ischemia selectively impairs endothelial function and reactive hyperemia independently of blood cells. Vascular injury is intrinsically limited by endogenous (but not exogenous) activation of A1ARs, whereas exogenous A3AR activation further limits dysfunction (improving post-ischemic vasoregulation). Finally, findings suggest this form of post-ischemic coronary injury is unrelated to endothelin or oxidant stress, but may involve modulation of Ca2+ overload and/or related ionic perturbations.