Cumulative effects of repeated chlorothalonil application on soil microbial activity and community in contrasting soils
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Purpose: Chlorothalonil (CTN) has received much attention due to its broad-spectrum antifungal function and repeated applications in agriculture production practice. An incubation experiment was conducted to study the accumulating effects of CTN repeated application on soil microbial activities, biomass, and community and to contrast the discrepancy of effects in contrasting soils. Materials and methods: Different dosage CTN (5 mg kg−1, T1, and 25 mg kg−1, T5) was applied into two contrasting soils at 7-day intervals. Soil samples were taken 7 days after each application to assess soil enzyme activities and gene abundances. At the end of incubation, the soil samples were also taken to analyze microbial communities in the two test soils. Results and discussion: Soil fluorescein diacetate hydrolysis (FDAH) and urease activities were inhibited by CTN repeated applications. After 28 days of incubation, bacterial 16S rRNA gene abundances in T1 and T5 treatments were significantly lower than those in the CK treatments (46.4 and 36.6 % of the CK treatment in acidic red soil, 53.6 and 37.9 % of the CK treatment in paddy soil). Archaeal 16S rRNA gene abundances of T1 and T5 treatments were observed the similar trends (56.1 and 40.8 % of the CK treatment in acidic red soil, 45.6 and 43.7 % of the CK treatment in paddy soil). Repeated applications at 25 mg kg−1 exerted significantly negative effects on the Shannon-Weaver, Simpson and McIntosh indices. Conclusions: Microbial activity, biomass, and functional diversity were significantly inhibited by repeated CTN application at the higher dosage (25 mg kg−1), but the inhibitory effects by the application at the recommended dosage (5 mg kg−1) were erratic. More emphasis needs to be placed on the soil type and cumulative toxicity from repeated CTN application when assessing environmental risk.
Journal of Soils and Sediments
Environmental Sciences not elsewhere classified