Dereplication of antioxidant compounds in Bene (Pistacia atlantica subsp. mutica) hull using a multiplex approach of HPLC-DAD, LC-MS and 1H NMR techniques
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Bene is an edible fruit from the tree Pistacia atlantica subsp. mutica, and is of steadily growing interest in recent years due to its significant antioxidant properties and potential health benefits. An antioxidant activity-guided fractionation of the methanol extract from Bene hull together with an integrated approach of HPLC–DAD, LC–MS and 1H NMR techniques led to the identification of main antioxidant phenolic compounds for the first time. Radical scavenging activity of each fraction/compound was tested using DPPH and FRAP assays. The phenolic content of the fractions was also determined by Folin–Ciocalteu’s method. The main identified antioxidant compounds were luteolin (46.53% w/w of total extract), gallic acid (9.84% w/w), 2″-O-galloylisoquercitrin (0.53% w/w), quercetin 3-rutinoside (0.34% w/w) and 2″-O-cis-caffeoylquercitrin (0.26% w/w). The minor antioxidant compounds were also identified by liquid chromatography–positive/negative electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry. The structure–antioxidant activity relationship of identified phenolics are also discussed in this paper.
Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis
Analytical Chemistry not elsewhere classified