A new approach to the determinination of cardiac potential distributions: Application to the analysis of electrode configurations
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This paper presents a mathematical model and new solution technique for studying the electric potential in a slab of cardiac tissue. The model is based on the bidomain representation of cardiac tissue and also allows for the effects of fibre rotation between the epicardium and the endocardium. A detailed solution method, based on Fourier Series and a simple one-dimensional finite difference scheme, for the governing equations for electric potential in the tissue and the blood, is also presented. This method has the advantage that the potential can be calculated only at points where it is required, such as the measuring electrodes. The model is then used to study various electrode configurations which have been proposed to determine cardiac tissue conductivity parameters. Three electrode configurations are analysed in terms of electrode spacing, placement position and the effect of including fibre rotation: the usual surface four-electrode configuration; a single vertical analogue of this and a two probe configuration, which has the current electrodes on one probe and the measuring electrodes on the other, a fixed distance away. It is found that including fibre rotation has no effect on the potentials measured in the first two cases; however, in the two probe case, non-zero fibre rotation causes a significant drop in the voltage measured. This leads to the conclusion that it is necessary to include the effects of fibre rotation in any model which involves the use of multiple plunge electrodes.
© 2006 Elsevier. This is the author-manuscript version of this paper. Reproduced in accordance with the copyright policy of the publisher. Please refer to the journal's website for access to the definitive, published version.