Chaotic properties of planar elongational flow and planar shear flow: Lyapunov exponents, conjugate-pairing rule, and phase space contraction
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The simulation of planar elongational flow in a nonequilibrium steady state for arbitrarily long times has recently been made possible, combining the SLLOD algorithm with periodic boundary conditions for the simulation box. We address the fundamental questions regarding the chaotic behavior of this type of flow, comparing its chaotic properties with those of the well-established SLLOD algorithm for planar shear flow. The spectra of Lyapunov exponents are analyzed for a number of state points where the energy dissipation is the same for both flows, simulating a nonequilibrium steady state for isoenergetic and isokinetic constrained dynamics. We test the conjugate-pairing rule and confirm its validity for planar elongation flow, as is expected from the Hamiltonian nature of the adiabatic equations of motion. Remarks about the chaoticity of the convective part of the flows, the link between Lyapunov exponents and viscosity, and phase space contraction for both flows complete the study.
Physical Review E (Statistical, Nonlinear, and Soft Matter Physics)