Police Pluralisation and Private Security
Policing in a war zone seems paradoxical—maintaining public order, protecting individuals and property—where (mass) murder and destruction may be recognised and ‘justified’ under the international laws of war. Since 2001, in response to state absence or incapacity, multiple forms of security actors have emerged, as for-profit enterprises, hybrid public–private groups, and community collectives. Operating in regions with little or no regulation, oversight or enforcement mechanisms, these policing arrangements offer opportunities not just to protect individuals, communities, and corporations but also to engage in criminal activity. Theoretical frameworks are proposed to understand this dual capacity for protection and criminal activity, drawing upon the nexus between state-building and organised crime, and the maintenance of order in markets and trade.
The Palgrave Handbook of Criminology and War