Development of population-based resilience measures in the primary school setting
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Purpose - The purpose of this population based study is to report on progress in formulating instruments to measure children's resilience and associated protective factors in family, primary school and community contexts. Design/methodology/approach - A total of 2794 students, 1558 parents/caregivers, and 465 staff were surveyed in October 2003. A cross sectional research method was used for the data collection. Three surveys (Student Survey, and Parent/Caregiver Survey, and Staff Survey) were developed and modified to measure student resilience and associated protective factors. Exploratory factor analysis with Oblimin rotation and confirmatory factor analysis were used to analyse the reliability and validity of the scales of the three surveys. Findings - The surveys indicate good construct validity and internal consistency for the Social Support Scale of Parent/Caregiver Survey, which had been modified from previous studies. Confirmatory factor analysis indicated a goodness of fit for the following scales: 1) Student Resilience Scale of the Student Survey, 2) the School Organisation and Climate Scale and Family Functioning Scale of the Parent/Caregiver survey and, 3) the Health Promoting School Scale and Social Capital Scale of the Staff Survey. Practical implications - The current study specifies aspects of the resilience concept within a holistic or socio-ecological setting. Measures of validity and reliability indicate that these instruments have the sensitivity to elucidate the complexity of both the resilience concept and the intricacy of working within the multi-layered world of the school environment. Originality/value - This study provides health educators and researchers with reliable and valid resilience measures which can be used as guidelines in implementing evaluation programmes for the health promoting school project and the prevention of mental health problems in children. Keywords - resilience, reliability, validity, exploratory factor analysis, confirmatory factor analysis.
Copyright 2007 Emerald. This is the author-manuscript version of this paper. Reproduced in accordance with the copyright policy of the publisher. Please refer to the journal's website for access to the definitive, published version.