Estrogen Deficiency-Associated Bone Loss in the Maxilla: A Methodology to Quantify the Changes in the Maxillary Intra-radicular Alveolar Bone in an Ovariectomized Rat Osteoporosis Model
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The effects of estrogen deficiency on bone characteristics are site-dependent, with the most commonly studied sites being appendicular long bones (proximal femur and tibia) and axial bones (vertebra). The effect on the maxillary and mandibular bones is still inconsistent and requires further investigation. This study was designed to evaluate bone quality in the posterior maxilla of ovariectomized rats to validate this site as an appropriate model to study the effect of osteoporotic changes. Forty-eight 3-month-old female Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into two groups: an ovariectomized (OVX) group (n=24) and Sham-operated (SHAM) group (n=24). Six rats were randomly sacrificed from both groups at time points 8, 12, 16, and 20 weeks. The samples from tibia and maxilla were collected for micro computed tomography (μCT) and histological analysis. For the maxilla, the volume of interest area focused on the furcation areas of the first and second molar. Trabecular bone volume fraction (BV/TV, %), trabecular thickness (Tb.Th.), trabecular number (Tb.N.), trabecular separation (Tb.Sp.), and connectivity density (Conn.Dens) were analyzed after Micro CT scanning. At 8 weeks the indices BV/TV, Tb.Sp., Tb.N., and Conn.Dens showed significant differences (p<0.05) between the OVX and SHAM groups in the tibia. Compared with the tibia, the maxilla developed osteoporosis at a later stage, with significant changes in maxillary bone density only occurring after 12 weeks. Compared with the SHAM group, both the first and second molars of the OVX group showed significantly decreased BV/TV values from 12 weeks, and these changes were sustained through 16 and 20 weeks. For Tb.Sp., there were significant increases in bone values for the OVX group compared with the SHAM group at 12, 16, and 20 weeks. Histological changes were highly consistent with Micro CT results. This study established a method to quantify the changes of intra-radicular alveolar bone in the posterior maxilla in an accepted rat osteoporosis model. The degree of the osteoporotic changes to trabecular bone architecture is site-dependent and at least 3 months are required for the osteoporotic effects to be apparent in the posterior maxilla following rat OVX.
Tissue Engineering Part C: Methods
This is a copy of an article published in the Tissue Engineering, Part C: Methods. Copyright 2015 Mary Ann Liebert, Inc. Tissue Engineering, Part C: Methods is available online at: http://www.liebertonline.com.