A randomized controlled trial of two different macronutrient profiles on weight, body composition and metabolic parameters in obese adolescents seeking weight loss
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Objective: Adolescent obesity is difficult to treat and the optimal dietary pattern, particularly in relation to macronutrient composition, remains controversial. This study tested the effect of two structured diets with differing macronutrient composition versus control, on weight, body composition and metabolic parameters in obese adolescents. Design: A randomized controlled trial conducted in a children’s hospital. Methods: Eighty seven obese youth (means: age 13.6 years, BMI z-score 2.2, waist: height ratio 0.65, 69% female) completed a psychological preparedness program and were then randomized to a short term ‘structured modified carbohydrate’ (SMC, 35% carbohydrate; 30% protein; 35% fat, n = 37) or a ‘structured low fat’ (SLF, 55% carbohydrate; 20% protein; 25% fat, n = 36) or a wait listed control group (n = 14). Anthropometric, body composition and biochemical parameters were measured at randomization and after 12 weeks, and analyzed under the intention to treat principle using analysis of variance models. Results: After 12 weeks, data was collected from 79 (91%) participants. BMI z-scores were significantly lower in both intervention groups compared to control after adjusting for baseline values, SLF vs. control, mean difference = -0.13 (95%CI = -0.18, -0.07), P<0.001; SMC vs. control, -0.14 (-0.19, -0.09), P<0.001, but there was no difference between the two intervention diet groups: SLF vs. SMC, 0.00 (-0.05, 0.04), P = 0.83. Conclusions: Both dietary patterns resulted in similar changes in weight, body composition and metabolic improvements compared to control. The use of a structured eating system which allows flexibility but limited choices can assist in weight change and the rigid application of a low fat eating pattern is not exclusive in its efficacy.
© 2016 Truby et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
Nutrition and Dietetics not elsewhere classified