Layered Finite Element Analysis of One-Way and Two-Way Concrete Walls with Openings
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Empirical wall design equations provided in major codes of practice are conservative because they do not cover walls that are supported on all four sides or walls with slenderness ratios greater than 30. They do not cover walls that require openings for doors, windows and services. The recognition of such factors in design codes would result in savings in construction costs. This study investigates the effect of side restraints and the presence of openings for reinforced concrete wall panels where axial load eccentricity induces secondary bending. A numerical analysis of such walls is undertaken using the non-linear Layered Finite Element Method (LFEM), and results are compared with eight one-third to one-half scale wall panels tested previously at Griffith University. The LFEM predicts the failure loads, the load deflection responses, the deformed shapes and the crack patterns of the tested wall panels. Subsequent parametric studies on the ultimate load carrying capacity of 54 one-way and two-way reinforced concrete walls with openings established relationships of failure load with slenderness ratio and eccentricity.
Advances in Structural Engineering
© 2007 Multi-Science Publishing. This is the author-manuscript version of this paper. Reproduced in accordance with the copyright policy of the publisher. Please refer to the journal's website for access to the definitive, published version.