A randomized controlled trial of intranasal fentanyl vs intravenous morphine for analgesia in the prehospital setting
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Study Objective The objective of the study was to compare intranasal fentanyl (INF) with intravenous morphine (IVM) for prehospital analgesia. Methods This was a randomized, controlled, open-label trial. Consecutive adult patients (n = 258) requiring analgesia (Verbal Rating Score [VRS] >2/10 noncardiac or >5/10 cardiac) were recruited. Patients received INF 180 姠ᠲ doses of 60 姠at =5-minute intervals or IVM 2.5 to 5 mg ᠲ doses of 2.5 to 5 mg at =5-minute intervals. The end point was the difference in baseline/destination VRS. Results Groups were equivalent (P = not significant) for baseline VRS [mean (SD): INF 8.3 (1.7), IVM 8.1 (1.6)] and minutes to destination [mean (SD): INF 27.2 (15.5), IVM 30.6 (19.1)]. Patients had a mean (95% confidence interval) VRS reduction as follows: INF 4.22 (3.74-4.71), IVM 3.57 (3.10-4.03); P = .08. Higher baseline VRS (P < .001), no methoxyflurane use (P < .01), and back pain (P = .02) predicted VRS reduction. Safety and acceptability were comparable. Conclusions There was no significant difference in the effectiveness of INF and IVM for prehospital analgesia.
American Journal of Emergency Medicine
Copyright 2007 Elsevier. This is the author-manuscript version of this paper. Reproduced in accordance with the copyright policy of the publisher. Please refer to the journal's website for access to the definitive, published version.