Australia's Greenhouse Measures Provide the Answer to Reducing Greenhouse Gas Emissions - the Alternative to "Environmentally Related Taxes?"
Australia's greenhouse measures provide the answer to reducing greenhouse gas emissions - the alternative to 'environmentally related taxes'? By Anna Mortimore? 1. INTRODUCTION The Australian Government did not ratify the Kyoto Protocol Agreement on 16 February 2005, as not all major emitters signed the agreement , and it was not in Australia's economic interest being one of the world's leading nations in the exportation of energy resources. Even so, the Australian Government claims that every effort will be made to achieve the countries Kyoto Protocol obligation of limiting its greenhouse gas emissions to 108% of 1990 levels by 2008-12 from the implementation of its 'greenhouse measures'. The measures are in contrast with other OECD countries, and ignores the 2001 OECD report which reprimanded Australia for failing to introduce taxes and charges to deal with greenhouse gas emissions, where 'one way to keep it down was to price it'. Australia's answer is not in adopting such fiscal instruments but in 'greenhouse measures' that are 'science based, results-oriented that delivers practical outcomes by working in partnership with industry, regions and community'. Not only will such measures need to address the countries existing poor energy efficiency record which improved at less than half the rate of other countries , but it will also need to account for the future energy demand, expected to increase by 50% by 2020 . Whether such measures are adequate in reducing GHG emissions and meeting the Kyoto Protocol target is questionable, particularly when the Green Budget News reports that Australia's greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions have increased by 22% from 1990 to 2002. This chapter reviews the Australian Governments environmental policy framework for reducing greenhouse emissions and assesses whether Australia is on track to meet its Kyoto Protocol target from the implementation of its 'greenhouse measures'
Critical Issues in Environmental Taxation International and Comparative Perspectives
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