Cytogenetics of melanoma and nonmelanoma skin cancer
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Cytogenetic analysis of melanoma and nonmelanoma skin cancers has revealed recurrent aberrations, the frequency of which is reflective of malignant potential. Highly aberrant karyotypes are seen in melanoma, squamous cell carcinoma, solar keratosis and Merkel cell carcinoma with more stable karyotypes seen in basal cell carcinoma, keratoacanthoma, Bowen's disease, dermatofibrosarcomaprotuberans and cutaneous lymphomas. Some aberrations were common amongst a number of skin cancer types including rearrangements and numerical abnormalities of chromosome 1, -3p, +3q, partial or entire trisomy 6, trisomy 7, +8q, -9p, +9q, partial or entire loss of chromosome 10, -17p, + 17q and partial or entire gain of chromosome 20. Combination of cytogenetic analysis with other molecular genetic techniques has enabled the identification of not only aberrant chromosomal regions, but also the genes that contribute to a malignant phenotype. This review provides a comprehensive summary of the pertinent cytogenetic aberrations associated with a variety of melanoma and nonmelanoma skin cancers.
Sunlight, vitamin D and skin cancer
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