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dc.contributor.authorHolt, Evaen_US
dc.contributor.authorvan der Recke, Rolanden_US
dc.contributor.authorVetter, Walteren_US
dc.contributor.authorHawker, Darrylen_US
dc.contributor.authorAlberts, Vincenten_US
dc.contributor.authorKuch, Bertramen_US
dc.contributor.authorWeber, Rolanden_US
dc.contributor.authorGaus, Carolineen_US
dc.contributor.editorJerald Schnooren_US
dc.description.abstractAn as yet unidentified origin of elevated concentrations of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) in soil and sediment has repeatedly been described from different locations around the world, including Australia. Natural sources have been hypothesized to account for such contamination, which is characterized by a distinctive dioxin profile, in particular, elevated levels of octachlorodibenzo-p-dioxins (OCDD) as well as relatively low contributions of polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs). The present study investigated whether OCDD formation via anthropogenically derived precursors represents a possible source in such samples. Soil and sediment from Australia and Hawaii were screened for known pesticide derived dioxin precursors. Two pesticide formulations containing pentachlorophenol (PCP), which are well-known to contain predominantly OCDD impurities, were also analyzed. Polychlorinated phenoxyphenols (PCPPs), common byproducts of pesticide production, were detected at parts-per-billion (ppb) levels in two PCP formulations and in five environmental samples. Of particular interest was the presence of the PCPP isomer 3,4,5,6-tetrachloro-2-(2,3,4,5,6-pentachlorophenoxy)phenol (nonaC2PP), often also termed predioxin, in these samples. This compound readily undergoes ring closure to form OCDD under a range of conditions and environments. In addition, the pesticide PCP itself, which also represents a potent precursor to OCDD formation and is known to contain OCDD impurities, was detected in some environmental samples. The evidence from this study indicates that pesticides and their impurities play an important role in the dioxin contamination of Australian soils and sediments, as well as other locations with similar PCDD/F patterns. The results further suggest that formation of OCDD from pesticide derived precursors may be a possible past, present, and future pathway for contamination of environmental samplesen_US
dc.publisherAmerican Chemical Societyen_US
dc.publisher.placeUnited Statesen_US
dc.relation.ispartofjournalEnvironmental Science & Technology (Washington)en_US
dc.titleAssessing Dioxin Precursors in Pesticide Formulations and Environmental Samples As a Source of Octachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin in Soil and Sedimenten_US
dc.typeJournal articleen_US
dc.type.descriptionC1 - Peer Reviewed (HERDC)en_US
dc.type.codeC - Journal Articlesen_US
gro.facultyGriffith Sciences, Griffith School of Environmenten_US
gro.rights.copyrightCopyright 2008 American Chemical Society. Self-archiving of the author-manuscript version is not yet supported by this publisher. Please refer to the journal link for access to the definitive, published version or contact the authors for more information.en_AU
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