Periodontal Microbiology and Immunobiology
As the microbiology and immunobiology of periodontal disease has continued to evolve, several changes to our understanding of health and disease have emerged. One cornerstone of this evolution has been the increased understanding of the microbiology characterizing health and disease of the periodontium. Another involves the continued progress in determining the complexity of the human inflammatory response to the periodontal biofilm, leading to a better understanding of the key innate and adaptive immune mechanisms. This knowledge has produced a “blue-print” of the host-microbial interactions that occur in the periodontium, elucidating how the host responds to commensal and pathogenic bacteria, succeeding to achieve a balance in most but resulting in disease in some cases (Ebersole et al. 2013). An understanding of the normal structure and function of the periodontium provides the basis for making clinical decisions aimed at maintaining periodontal health.
Functional Occlusion in Restorative Dentistry and Prosthodontics