Genotoxicity investigation of chlorinated degradation products of a cyanobacterial toxin, cylindrospermopsin
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Cylindrospermopsin (CYN), a potent cyanobacterial hepatotoxin produced by Cylindrospermopsis raciborskii and other cyanobacteria, is regularly found in water supplies in many parts of the world and has been associated with the intoxication of humans and livestock.Water treatment via chlorination can degrade the toxin effectively but result in the production of several byproducts. In this study, male and female Balb/c mice were injected via the intraperitoneal (IP) route with a single dose of 10 mg/kg 5-chlorouracil and 10 mg/kg 5-chloro-6-hydroxymethyluracil; these two compounds are the predicted chlorinated degradation products of CYN.DNA was isolated from the mouse livers and examined for strand breakage by alkaline gel electrophoresis (pH 12). The median molecular length (MML) of the DNA distributed in the gel was determined by estimating the midpoint of the DNA size distribution by densitometry. The toxicity of 5-chlorouracil (as measured by DNA strand breakage) was significantly influenced by time from dosing. There was no significant difference in MML between mice dosed with 5-chloro-6-hydroxymethyluracil and the controls. In another experiment, mice were dosed with 0, 0.1, 1, 10 and 100 mg/kg body weight 5-chlorouracil and 0, 0.1, 1, 10 and 20 mg/kg 5-chloro-6-hydroxymethyluracil via IP injection. The heart, liver, kidney, lung and spleen were removed, fixed and examined under electron microscopy. Liver was the main target organ. The EM results revealed marked distortion on the nuclear membrane of liver cells in mice dosed with 1.0 mg/kg 5-chlorouracil or 10 mg/kg 5-chloro-6-hydroxymethyluracil, or higher.
Harmful Algae 2002
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