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dc.contributor.authorA. Heil, Cynthiaen_US
dc.contributor.authorA. Kana, Austinen_US
dc.contributor.authorAbal, Evaen_US
dc.contributor.authorAl-Azri, Adnanen_US
dc.contributor.authorAl-Yamani, Faizaen_US
dc.contributor.authorAndersen, Peren_US
dc.contributor.authorAzanza, Rhodoraen_US
dc.contributor.authorBeardall, Johnen_US
dc.contributor.authorBrand, Larryen_US
dc.contributor.authorBronk, Deborahen_US
dc.contributor.authorBrookes, Justinen_US
dc.contributor.authorBurford, Micheleen_US
dc.contributor.authorCembella, Allanen_US
dc.contributor.authorCollos, Yvesen_US
dc.contributor.authorDiaz, Roberten_US
dc.contributor.authorDoblin, Martinaen_US
dc.contributor.authorDrennen, Thomasen_US
dc.contributor.authorDyhram, Sonyaen_US
dc.contributor.authorFukuyo, Yasuwoen_US
dc.contributor.authorFurnas, Milesen_US
dc.contributor.authorFuruya, Kenen_US
dc.contributor.authorGalloway, Jamesen_US
dc.contributor.authorGranéli, Ednaen_US
dc.contributor.authorHa, Dao Vieten_US
dc.contributor.authorHallegraeff, Gustaafen_US
dc.contributor.authorHarrison, Johnen_US
dc.contributor.authorHeimann, Kirstenen_US
dc.contributor.authorHowarth, Roberten_US
dc.contributor.authorJ. Harrison, Paulen_US
dc.contributor.authorJauzein, Cécileen_US
dc.contributor.authorK. Stoecker, Dianeen_US
dc.contributor.authorKim, Hakgyoonen_US
dc.contributor.authorKudela, Raphaelen_US
dc.contributor.authorL. Collier, Jackieen_US
dc.contributor.authorLegrand, Catherineen_US
dc.contributor.authorM. Anderson, Donalden_US
dc.contributor.authorM. Burkholder, JoAnnen_US
dc.contributor.authorM. Glibert, Patriciaen_US
dc.contributor.authorM. Kana, Todden_US
dc.contributor.authorMallin, Michaelen_US
dc.contributor.authorMine Berg, G.en_US
dc.contributor.authorMulholland, Margareten_US
dc.contributor.authorMurray, Shaunaen_US
dc.contributor.authorO'Neil, Judithen_US
dc.contributor.authorP. Cochlan, Williamen_US
dc.contributor.authorPitcher, Granten_US
dc.contributor.authorQi, Yuzaoen_US
dc.contributor.authorRabalais, Nancyen_US
dc.contributor.authorRaine, Robinen_US
dc.contributor.authorS. Salomon, Pauloen_US
dc.contributor.authorSeitzinger, Sybilen_US
dc.contributor.authorSolomon, Carolineen_US
dc.contributor.authorUsup, Giresen_US
dc.contributor.authorWilson, Joanneen_US
dc.contributor.authorYin, Kedongen_US
dc.contributor.authorZhou, Mingjiangen_US
dc.contributor.authorZhu, Mingyuanen_US
dc.date.accessioned2017-04-04T19:04:31Z
dc.date.available2017-04-04T19:04:31Z
dc.date.issued2008en_US
dc.date.modified2009-07-27T06:59:57Z
dc.identifier.issn0025326Xen_US
dc.identifier.doi10.1016/j.marpolbul.2008.03.010en_AU
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/10072/23543
dc.description.abstractThe proposed plan for enrichment of the Sulu Sea, Philippines, a region of rich marine biodiversity, with thousands of tonnes of urea in order to stimulate algal blooms and sequester carbon is flawed for multiple reasons. Urea is preferentially used as a nitrogen source by some cyanobacteria and dinoflagellates, many of which are neutrally or positively buoyant. Biological pumps to the deep sea are classically leaky, and the inefficient burial of new biomass makes the estimation of a net loss of carbon from the atmosphere questionable at best. The potential for growth of toxic dinoflagellates is also high, as many grow well on urea and some even increase their toxicity when grown on urea. Many toxic dinoflagellates form cysts which can settle to the sediment and germinate in subsequent years, forming new blooms even without further fertilization. If large-scale blooms do occur, it is likely that they will contribute to hypoxia in the bottom waters upon decomposition. Lastly, urea production requires fossil fuel usage, further limiting the potential for net carbon sequestration. The environmental and economic impacts are potentially great and need to be rigorously assessed.en_US
dc.description.peerreviewedYesen_US
dc.description.publicationstatusYesen_AU
dc.languageEnglishen_US
dc.language.isoen_AU
dc.publisherElsevier Ltd.en_US
dc.publisher.placeUnited Kingdomen_US
dc.publisher.urihttp://www.elsevier.com/locate/marpolbulen_AU
dc.relation.ispartofstudentpublicationNen_AU
dc.relation.ispartofpagefrom1049en_US
dc.relation.ispartofpageto1056en_US
dc.relation.ispartofjournalMarine Pollution Bulletinen_US
dc.relation.ispartofvolume56en_US
dc.rights.retentionYen_AU
dc.subject.fieldofresearchEnvironmental Managementen_US
dc.subject.fieldofresearchcode050205en_US
dc.titleOcean urea fertilization for carbon credits poses high ecological risksen_US
dc.typeJournal articleen_US
dc.type.descriptionC1 - Peer Reviewed (HERDC)en_US
dc.type.codeC - Journal Articlesen_US
gro.rights.copyrightCopyright 2008 Elsevier. Please refer to the journal's website for access to the definitive, published version.en_AU
gro.date.issued2008
gro.hasfulltextNo Full Text


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