World-Wide Lightning Location Using VLF Propagation in the Earth-Ionosphere Waveguide
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Worldwide lightning location (WWLL) using only 30 lightning sensors has been successfully achieved by using only VLF propagation in the Earth-ionosphere waveguide (EIWG). Ground propagation or mixed "sky" and ground propagation is avoided by requiring evidence of Earth-ionosphere waveguide dispersion. A further requirement is that the lightning strike must be inside the perimeter defined by the lightning sensor sites detecting the stroke. Under these conditions, the time and the location of the stroke can be determined, along with the rms errors. Lightning strokes with errors exceeding 30 Ps or To assist with identifying impulses from the same lightning stroke, the lightning sensor threshold is automatically adjusted to allow an average detection rate of three per second. This largely limits detection to the strongest 4% of all lightning strokes, of which about 40% meet the accuracy requirements for time and location.
IEEE Antennas and Propagation Magazine
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Electrical and Electronic Engineering not elsewhere classified