Securing Twenty-First Century Societies
The chapters in this collection explore differing approaches to migrants’ insecur ity, emphasizing the mutually constituted notions of both individual and social attitudes to security for formerly displaced populations. Rather than reprise state based approaches to security, contributors instead consider experiences of insecur ity that recognize the dual importance of both legal borders and less visible barriers to community engagement. Under the influence of new technolo gies, constructs of community and security have undergone profound change throughout the Global North. Many of the authors highlight an increasing tension throughout the first decade of the twenty-first century, whereby states’ tightened control of international borders has rendered participation in local communities increasingly fraught and contested. Therefore, local spaces have become vital sites, providing space in which to enact identifications with multiple localities beyond that immediately experienced. As multiple contributors argue, this has had a profound implication for modern forms of civic identity and community inclusion. Underlying this tension are the substantial changes in the nature of world migration that have occurred in recent decades. Following the Second World War, the dominant image of the irregular migrant in the Global North was of white refugees, displaced from their homes by the devastation of war and the onset of the Iron Curtain. Many of these Europeans settled within states of the Global North, such as Australia, where they were welcomed as valuable addi tions to their hosts’ credentials as cultivated nations. By the end of the twentieth century, this image had given way to one of irregular migrants from the Global South seeking to gain entry into developed nations. Such arrivals raised new questions regarding the relationship between asylum and pragmatic concepts of nation building, focusing attention on appropriate responses to the presence of visibly different and disadvantaged minorities in local communities. Adding to this, the accelerating technological revolution that continued throughout the first decade of the twenty-first century has transformed questions about how best to ensure visibly different migrants are effectively integrated in local communities. Residents’ negotiation of multiple identities, including those associated with spaces not directly experienced physically, has become central to contemporary Australian citizenship. The social norms governing this process may be seen as a newly emerging form of cosmopolitan ethics, albeit one rooted in local space, but which is at odds with the ascribed ethnicities of multicultural ism. Rather than reinforce a static notion of ethnic identity, an ethics grounded in local experiences of cosmopolitan sentiment emphasizes the fluidity of iden tity and the inevitable presence of difference in local space. It follows that traditional notions of Australian nation-building and commun ity inclusion are increasingly challenged within local spaces. As James (2006) intimates, globalization resulted in an intensified awareness of difference at thresholds of passing into the local community. The tension lies in formulating a shared community based on cosmopolitan sentiment, but which does not negate deeply held historical memories for either host or immigrant, as described here by Damousi (Chapter 3). In an era of increasingly fluid migration and identifica tion, this demands renewed emphasis on cultural citizenship rather than increas ingly arbitrary parameters of legal citizenship. With cosmopolitan sentiment, these new forms of community extend beyond local space to encompass the notion of human rights so that irregular migrants need not be legal citizens to be full members of the local community (Kymlicka 2003). As Steiner discusses (in Chapter 2), such tensions are at the heart of the Global North’s attempts to reconstitute community and security in the twenty-first century.
Migration and Insecurity: Citizenship and social inclusion in a transnational era
Studies in Human Society not elsewhere classified