Food and Environmental Security in the Indian Ocean Region: Interrogating the GM Doubly Green Revolution
Pressured by global population growth, which currently stands at 6.5 billion, the Indian Ocean Region, dominated by Africa, is a key site of global hunger. Of the estimated 850 million people worldwide classiﬁed as malnourished, some 200 mil-lion live in sub-Saharan Africa (Berthelot 2005). Many others of the global hungry also live in the Indian Ocean Region, especially in Asian countries, such as India, Bangladesh, Indonesia, Sri Lanka, and Thailand. Despite many measures to purportedly address hunger and malnutrition, especially since the mid-1940s, with the creation of the high-yielding crop varieties of the so-called Green Revolution, and their transfer as industrial agriculture from the North to the South, hunger and malnutrition have persisted and worsened. Following the decreasing effectiveness of the Green Revolution, the message now, with the birth of modern agricultural genetics and genetically engineered crop varieties, is of a Doubly Green Revolution. Accompanying that message, increasingly, is the message of “food security,” which, in the context of hunger, is a message of hope. This chapter critically interrogates these messages and ﬁnds that they are wanting, and that the populations most targeted by them will likely remain wanting of food security and, indeed, may be worse off. Instead, other agricultural systems and ways of public participation in technological change seem more appropriate as a message of hope.
Crucible for Survival: Environmental Security and Justice in the Indian Ocean Region