Ecotoxicities of polyquaterniums and their associated polyelectrolyte-surfactant aggregates (PSA) to Gambusia holbrooki
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The toxicity of 11 polyquaterniums used in cosmetic applications, and polydimethyldiallylammonium chloride (poly(DADMAC)) were studied for toxicity of the polyquaternium alone, and of a polyquaternium/anionic surfactant complex as occurs in some cosmetic formulations. The surfactant used in the study was sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), which is used in cosmetic formulations under its International Nomenclature of Cosmetic Ingredients (INCI) name Sodium Laurel Sulfate. In fish immobilization studies with Gambusia holbrooki, the EC50 of the polyquaternium/surfactant complex was found to be the same as or similar to the EC50 for the polyquaternium alone. The toxicity of the polyquaterniums investigated was similar to the published values for other cationic polyelectrolytes and cationic surfactants, in the range from <1.0 to 10 mg/L, with the exception of low charge density cellulosic polyquaterniums. The anionic surfactant alone was not toxic to fish in the concentration range tested. Results thus showed the toxicity of the polyquaternium was not mitigated by the presence of the anionic surfactant.
Journal of Environmental Science and Health. Part A: Toxic Hazardous Substances and Environmental Engineering