Investigating the multiple roles of polyvinylpyrrolidone for a general methodology of oxide encapsulation
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Growing oxide shells on seed nanoparticles requires the control of several processes: (a) the nucleation and growth of the shell material; (b) the “wetting” of the shell material on the seeds; and (c) the aggregation of the nanoparticles. These processes are influenced by a number of factors, many of which are related. Without understanding the interdependence of these contributing factors, it is difficult to circumvent problems and achieve rational synthesis. We first did a case study on encapsulating Au nanoparticles with ZnO to understand the multiple roles of polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) and their dependence on other factors. We developed a general method for coating ZnO on a variety of seeds, including metals, oxides, polymer nanoparticles, graphene oxide, and carbon nanotube. This method can be further extended to include Fe3O4, MnO, Co2O3, TiO2, Eu2O3, Tb2O3, Gd2O3, β-Ni(OH)2, ZnS, and CdS as the shell materials. The understanding obtained in this systematic study will aid rational design and synthesis of other core–shell nanostructures.
Journal of the American Chemical Society
Macromolecular and Materials Chemistry not elsewhere classified