Development, composition and age of indurated sand layers in the Late Quaternary coastal deposits of northern Moreton Bay, Queensland
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Indurated sand in the Late Quaternary coastal plain succession of northern Moreton Bay was examined in sand-mine pits, drillcores and the eroded bank of an estuarine channel. Samples show that the cements usually coat grains and partially infill interstitial pores. Distinctive cement habits reflect different constituents that are dominantly kaolinite and amorphous organic-rich complexes. Trace-metal concentrations in the cements are lower than previously reported for soils and estuarine sediments in the study region. Optically stimulated luminescence and thermoluminescence ages of these deposits indicate that pedogenic induration occurs over long periods, up to approximately 90 000 years, with only incipient induration evident in deposits 16 000-2600 years old. However, the rate of induration is far higher in relatively coarse channel fill, in which mineral and amorphous organic-rich cements have precipitated from shallow groundwater that flowed laterally through the deposit. The degree of induration, therefore, is strongly influenced by the original depositional texture and morphology of deposits, with well-indurated gravely channel fill (76 700 +/- 6500 y), at least 2m thick, sitting adjacent to medium-grained sand probably of dune origin, which contains a 30cm-thick induration horizon (98 000 +/- 9900 y).
Australian Journal of Earth Sciences
Geomorphology and Regolith and Landscape Evolution