The morphological and clinical relevance of mandibular and maxillary bone structures for implantation
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Tooth loss, which interrupts the biocybernetic feedback circuit of the masticatory system, changes the structures of the jaw bone: such changes are termed "inactivity atrophy". The mandible is subject to vertical atrophy and the maxilla is primarily subject to horizontal atrophy. The mandible possesses more compact bone, the maxilla more spongy; the resorption directions also differ (mandible: towards the oral aspect; maxilla: towards the vestibular). An implant helps to restore the biocybernetic feedback system. The amount of available bone, bone structure, and topographic conditions are crucial factors influencing implant success. Osseointegration is performed at an early stage (which includes bleeding, granulation tissue, foreign-body recognition, interactions) and at a late stage (so-called osseous bridging, development of fibrous and lamellar bone).