Biological adaptive control model: a mechanical analogue of multi-factorial bone density adaptation
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The mechanism of how bone adapts to every day demands needs to be better understood to gain insight into situations in which the musculoskeletal system is perturbed. This paper offers a novel multi-factorial mathematical model of bone density adaptation which combines previous single-factor models in a single adaptation system as a means of gaining this insight. Unique aspects of the model include provision for interaction between factors and an estimation of the relative contribution of each factor. This interacting system is considered analogous to a Newtonian mechanical system and the governing response equation is derived as a linear version of the adaptation process. The transient solution to sudden environmental change is found to be exponential or oscillatory depending on the balance between cellular activation and deactivation frequencies.
Journal of Theoretical Biology