Characterization of the intrinsic and extrinsic innervation of the gall bladder epithelium in the Australian Brush-tailed possum (Trichosurus vulpecula)
MetadataShow full item record
Intrinsic neurones of the gall bladder modulate its function. Nitric oxide synthase (NOS) and vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP) are present in gall bladder neurones and nitric oxide and VIP modulate its epithelial functions. As an extensive extrinsic innervation of the gall bladder is also present, the source of the epithelial innervation is unclear. In this study the source of the gall bladder epithelial innervation is defined. Immunoreactivity for VIP, NOS, substance P (SP), calcitonin gene related peptide (CGRP) and tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) in organotypic cultured and freshly fixed gall bladder were compared. Retrograde tracing in vitro from the epithelium was used to identify putative intrinsic secretomotor neurones, which were then characterized by immunohistochemistry. Abundant spinal afferent and sympathetic innervation of the gall bladder epithelium was demonstrated by CGRP/SP and TH immunohistochemistry, respectively. The intrinsic secretomotor innervation of the epithelium is derived exclusively from neurones of the subepithelial plexus. A majority of these neurones were immunoreactive for NOS. Some of the NOS-immunoreactive neurones of the subepithelial plexus also contained VIP and/or SP. Gall bladder subepithelial plexus neurones, containing NOS and/or VIP/SP, innervate the epithelium, as do extrinsic neurones.
Neurogastroenterology and Motility