Using the Aggregation of Latex Polymers in the Fabrication of Reproducible Enzyme Electrodes
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An enzyme electrode for glucose is described as a model system to demonstrate a fabrication method using latex aggregation and entrapment of enzyme. Electrosterically-stabilized latex particles synthesized by emulsion polymerization in batch from acrylic acid, methyl methacrylate and butyl acrylate, and glucose oxidase were coagulated together at pH 5.5 with ethanol. A platinum disk electrode dipped in the solution becomes coated with latex/enzyme. The relative thickness of the film and relative amount of enzyme may be controlled by the time the electrode is in contact with the solution. The enzyme was then immobilized by covalent attachment of amine groups to carboxylic moieties in the polymer using 1-ethyl-3(3-dimethylaminopropyl)-carbodiimide hydrochloride and N-hydroxysuccinimide. Five minutes contact with the latex/enzyme solution and subsequent amide coupling, gave electrodes with a reproducibility of 5.7% RSD, a wide dynamic range (0-100 mM) and good storage properties.