The FIFA World Cup 2002: the effects of terrorism on sport tourists
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This paper discusses the relationship between sport and tourism in reference to a specific hallmark event, the Fd鲡tion Internationale de Football Association (FIFA) 2002 Football World Cup. In particular, it investigates the terrorism-related issues that affected the event and the possible implications for future mega sporting events in Australia. It seeks to contribute to awareness of spectator experiences of this event by understanding perceptions of safety and responses to security measures. A questionnaire survey of a convenience-based sample of World Cup spectators in the Republic of Korea was undertaken to determine: the extent to which the terrorist attacks on the United States of America on 11 September, 2001 changed these sport tourists' motivations to attend the event; how safe they felt in Korea during the World Cup; and how risk management measures taken by the event organizers impacted on the tourists' level of enjoyment. The findings are discussed in the context of sport event management, concluding with consequences for the future organization of sports events. While this study focused on the impact of an act of terrorism, it is suggested that the implications of other critical incidences with global ramifications, such as the recent war in Iraq and the outbreak of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) need to be taken into account when planning mega sporting events.
Journal of Sport Tourism