Evaluating the net effects of ecotourism on the environment: a framework, first assessment and future research
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This review examines what outcomes ecotourism has achieved in regard to environmental issues. It proposes an analytic framework distinguishing four types of mechanism: those which can generate positive effects; those which can reduce negative effects; those which can increase negative effects; and contested issues, including scale and mainstreaming. It then discusses the barriers to evaluating ecotourism's environmental record. These include: problems of definition; the use of eco-labels; and the range of inclusion within any analysis. Finally, it outlines a series of future research priorities including: product and enterprise analysis; the value and importance of codes, interpretation and marketing, the potential significance of new community and political mechanisms; and post-trip lifestyle change.
Journal of Sustainable Tourism
© 2009 Routledge. This is the author-manuscript version of this paper. Reproduced in accordance with the copyright policy of the publisher. Please refer to the journal website for access to the definitive, published version.