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dc.contributor.authorNirthanan, S
dc.contributor.authorGopalakrishnakone, P
dc.contributor.authorGwee, MCE
dc.contributor.authorKhoo, HE
dc.contributor.authorKini, RM
dc.date.accessioned2017-05-03T15:29:02Z
dc.date.available2017-05-03T15:29:02Z
dc.date.issued2003
dc.date.modified2009-12-18T06:34:11Z
dc.identifier.issn0041-0101
dc.identifier.doi10.1016/S0041-0101(02)00388-4
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/10072/27781
dc.description.abstractNon-conventional toxins constitute a poorly characterized class of three-finger toxins isolated exclusively from Elapidae venoms. These toxins are monomers of 62-68 amino acid residues and contain five disulfide bridges. However, unlike a/?-neurotoxins and ?-neurotoxins which have the fifth disulfide bridge in their middle loop (loop II), the fifth disulfide bridge in non-conventional toxins is located in loop I (N-terminus loop). Overall, non-conventional toxins share ~28-42% identity with other three-finger toxins including a-neurotoxins, a/?-neurotoxins and ?-neurotoxins. Recent structural studies have revealed that non-conventional toxins also display the typical three-finger motif. Non-conventional toxins are typically characterized by a lower order of toxicity (LD50~5-80 mg/kg) in contrast to prototype a-neurotoxins (LD50~0.04-0.3 mg/kg) and hence they are also referred to as 'weak toxins'. Further, it is generally assumed that non-conventional toxins target muscle (a2߿d) receptors with low affinities several orders of magnitude lower than a-neurotoxins and a/?-neurotoxins. However, it is now known that some non-conventional toxins also antagonize neuronal a7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors. Hence, non-conventional toxins are not a functionally homogeneous group and other, yet unknown, molecular targets for this class of snake venom toxins may exist. Non-conventional toxins may therefore be a useful source of ligands with novel biological activity targeting the plethora of neuronal nicotinic receptors as well as other physiological processes.
dc.description.peerreviewedYes
dc.description.publicationstatusYes
dc.languageEnglish
dc.language.isoeng
dc.publisherElsevier Science
dc.publisher.placeAmsterdam
dc.publisher.urihttp://www.elsevier.com/wps/find/journaldescription.cws_home/259/description#description
dc.relation.ispartofpagefrom397
dc.relation.ispartofpageto407
dc.relation.ispartofissue4
dc.relation.ispartofjournalToxicon
dc.relation.ispartofvolume41
dc.subject.fieldofresearchBiochemistry and cell biology not elsewhere classified
dc.subject.fieldofresearchZoology not elsewhere classified
dc.subject.fieldofresearchPharmacology and pharmaceutical sciences
dc.subject.fieldofresearchcode310199
dc.subject.fieldofresearchcode310999
dc.subject.fieldofresearchcode3214
dc.titleNon-conventional toxins from Elapid venoms.
dc.typeJournal article
dc.type.descriptionC1 - Articles
dc.type.codeC - Journal Articles
gro.date.issued2003
gro.hasfulltextNo Full Text
gro.griffith.authorNirthanan, Niru


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