Content-Based Image Retrieval
With the rapid growth of Internet and multimedia systems, the use of visual information has increased enormously, such that indexing and retrieval techniques have become important. Historically, images are usually manually annotated with metadata such as captions or keywords (Chang & Hsu, 1992). Image retrieval is then performed by searching images with similar keywords. However, the keywords used may differ from one person to another. Also, many keywords can be used for describing the same image. Consequently, retrieval results are often inconsistent and unreliable. Due to these limitations, there is a growing interest in content-based image retrieval (CBIR). These techniques extract meaningful information or features from an image so that images can be classified and retrieved automatically based on their contents. Existing image retrieval systems such as QBIC and Virage extract the so-called low-level features such as color, texture and shape from an image in the spatial domain for indexing. Low-level features sometimes fail to represent high level semantic image features as they are subjective and depend greatly upon user preferences. To bridge the gap, a top-down retrieval approach involving high level knowledge can complement these low-level features. This articles deals with various aspects of CBIR. This includes bottom-up feature- based image retrieval in both the spatial and compressed domains, as well as top-down task-based image retrieval using prior knowledge.
Encyclopedia of Information Science and Technology
Pattern Recognition and Data Mining