Characteristics and Modelling of Runoff hydrographs for different tillage treatments
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Surface runoff rate is a critical variable in determining the rate of soil erosion and sediment transport. Rainfall and runoff data at 1-min intervals from an experiment site at Khon Kaen, Thailand, were used to test a three-parameter runoff model originally developed for bare plots in relation to soil erosion studies. The site has a sandy soil with a slope of 3.6%. Plot length and width were 30 and 5 m, respectively. Four tillage treatments with three replicates each were considered: up- and down-slope cultivation, two contour cultivation treatments with tillage depth of 25 and 50 cm, respectively, and no tillage. Runoff data for 200 individual runoff hydrographs showed that runoff amount and peak runoff rate for the no tillage treatment were significantly less than those for other treatments at the site. On average, runoff amount and peak runoff rate for the no tillage treatment were 37 and 44%, respectively, of those for the up- and down-slope cultivation. Results for contour cultivation practices are between the two extremes, although the water retention was not greater with greater tillage depth as we originally thought would be the case at the site. For these 200 runoff events for the four treatments, the model for runoff hydrographs worked well, with an average coefficient of efficiency of 0.90 and an average standard error of 0.88 mm h-1. The model performance is particularly good for large storm events with high volumetric runoff coefficient. The three model parameters vary considerably from event to event and from treatment to treatment. The initial infiltration amount was found to be inversely related to prior 10-d rainfall at the site; the spatially averaged maximum rate of infiltration can be related to the maximum retention or the Soil Conservation Service (SCS) Curve Number, and the hydrologic lag time is least variable among different storm events and tillage treatments, but tends to decrease with peak runoff rate.
Soil Science Society of America Journal
HISTORY AND ARCHAEOLOGY