Preparation Contextuality Powers Parity-Oblivious Multiplexing
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In a noncontextual hidden variable model of quantum theory, hidden variables determine the outcomes of every measurement in a manner that is independent of how the measurement is implemented. Using a generalization of this notion to arbitrary operational theories and to preparation procedures, we demonstrate that a particular two-party information-processing task, "parity-oblivious multiplexing," is powered by contextuality in the sense that there is a limit to how well any theory described by a noncontextual hidden variable model can perform. This bound constitutes a "noncontextuality inequality" that is violated by quantum theory. We report an experimental violation of this inequality in good agreement with the quantum predictions. The experimental results also provide the first demonstration of 2-to-1 and 3-to-1 quantum random access codes.
Physical Review Letters
Copyright 2009 American Physical Society. This is the author-manuscript version of this paper. Reproduced in accordance with the copyright policy of the publisher. Please refer to the journal's website for access to the definitive, published version.