Accumulation of oxytetracycline and norfloxacin from saline soil by soybeans
Soil of former shrimp aquaculture facilities in Thailand may be contaminated by antibiotics (e.g. oxytetracycline and norfloxacin) and have elevated salinity. Therefore, reuse of this land can be problematic. The utility of soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) for phytoremediation was investigated. The rate of germination and seedling emergence in prepared contaminated soil (conductivity 17.7 dS m- 1 from adding 70 mg sodium chloride g- 1 dry weight, 105 mg kg- 1 dry weight oxytetracycline and 55 mg kg- 1 dry weight norfloxacin) in sunlight was approximately 80% that of uncontaminated soil. This reduction was largely due to the high salinity. The antibiotics of interest degraded relatively rapidly in soil (half-life < 10 h for both) but loss was slower in deionised water. Accumulation of the antibiotics from deionised water by soybean resulted in little effect on growth rate and maximum levels in plants were observed after two days exposure, followed by declining concentrations. For soybean plants grown in saline soil, 90% removal of NaCl from soil adjacent to plant roots was observed, most within two days. Wilting and defoliation occurred, but plants recovered after 10 days and maximum salt levels in plants exceeded 20,000 mg g- 1 dry weight with translocation from root to shoot tissue noted. Soybean plants also accumulated the antibiotics from prepared contaminated saline soil, but translocation from the roots was not observed. The results showed that soybean can be valuable for phytoremediation in these situations.
Science of the Total Environment
Environmental Chemistry (incl. Atmospheric Chemistry)