Differential modulatory effects of Annexin 1 on nitric oxide synthase induction by lipopolysaccharide in macrophages
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Annexin-1 (ANXA1) is a glucocorticoid-regulated protein that modulates the effects of bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) on macrophages. Exogenous administration of peptides derived from the N-terminus of ANXA1 reduces LPS-stimulated inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) expression, but the effects of altering the endogenous expression of this protein are unclear. We transfected RAW264.7 murine macrophage-like cell lines to over-express constitutively ANXA1 and investigated whether this protein modulates the induction of iNOS, cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and tumour necrosis factor-a (TNF-a) in response to LPS. In contrast to exogenous administration of N-terminal peptides, endogenous over-expression of ANXA1 results in up-regulation of LPS-induced iNOS protein expression and activity. However, levels of iNOS mRNA are unchanged. ANXA1 has no effect on COX-2 or TNF-a production in response to LPS. In experiments to investigate the mechanisms underlying these phenomena we observed that activation of signalling proteins classically associated with iNOS transcription was unaffected. Over-expression of ANXA1 constitutively activates extracellular signal regulated kinase (ERK)-1 and ERK-2, components of a signalling pathway not previously recognized as regulating LPS-induced iNOS expression. Inhibition of ERK activity, by the inhibitor U0126, reduced LPS-induced iNOS expression in our cell lines. Over-expression of ANXA1 also modified LPS-induced phosphorylation of the ERK-regulated translational regulation factor eukaryotic initiation factor 4E. Our data suggest that ANXA1 may modify iNOS levels by posttranscriptional mechanisms. Thus differential effects on iNOS expression in macrophages are seen when comparing acute administration of ANXA1 peptides versus the chronic endogenous over-expression of ANXA1.
Immunology not elsewhere classified