Distinct inherited metastasis susceptibility exists for different breast cancer subtypes: a prognosis study
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Introduction Previous studies in mouse models and pilot epidemiology studies have demonstrated that inherited polymorphisms are associated with inherited risk of tumor progression and poor outcome in human breast cancer. To extend these studies and gain better understanding of the function of inherited polymorphism in breast cancer progression, a validation prognosis study was performed in a large independent breast cancer patient population. Methods The study population consisted of 1863 Dutch patients with operable primary breast cancer from Rotterdam, The Netherlands. Genomic DNA was genotyped for the missense Pro436Leu RRP1B single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rs9306160 and the intronic SIPA1 SNP rs2448490 by SNP-specific PCR. Results A significant association of variants in RRP1B with metastasis-free survival was observed (P = 0.012), validating the role of RRP1B with inherited metastatic susceptibility. Stratification of patients revealed that association with patients' survival was found to be specifically restricted to estrogen receptor positive, lymph node-negative (ER+/LN-) patients (P = 0.011). The specific association with metastasis-free survival only in ER+/LN- patients was replicated for SIPA1, a second metastasis susceptibility gene known to physically interact with RRP1B (P = 0.006). Combining the genotypes of these two genes resulted in the significant ability to discriminate patients with poor metastasis-free survival (HR: 0.40, 95% CI: 0.24 to 0.68, P = 0.001). Conclusions These results validate SIPA1 and RRP1B as metastasis susceptibility genes and suggest that genotyping assays may be a useful supplement to other clinical and molecular indicators of prognosis. The results also suggest that lymphatic and hematogeneous metastases are genetically distinct that may involve different mechanisms. If true, these results suggest that metastatic disease, like primary breast cancer, may be multiple diseases and that stratification of late stage patients may therefore be required to fully understand breast cancer progression and metastasis.
Breast Cancer Research
Copyright 2009 Hsieh et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.